Raja Yoga Oneness Through Meditation
Raja Yoga is viewed as the “royal path” to attaining the state of yoga or unity with mind-body-spirit. Raja Yoga is so highly revered because it attains enlightenment from direct control and mastery of the mind. This approach makes Raja Yoga an extremely challenging and difficult practice to engage in. Hatha Yoga, what we usually know as just “yoga” in the West is a much easier path. Hatha Yoga aims to control the body and breath to still prana (energy) that in turn stills the mind. Although Hatha Yoga was developed as a preparation for Raja Yoga, they can be practiced simultaneously.
Raja Yoga is often referred to as “classical yoga” as it was the oldest system of yoga to by systematically developed into a unified practice. The practice of Raja Yoga was compiled by the sage Patanjali in his famous Yoga Sutras during the second century CE. The Yoga Sutras break down the practice of yogic meditation into eight limbs or sub-practices. The first four limbs are referred to as the external limbs and are to be practiced simultaneously. Some of these limbs have the same names as the Hatha Yoga practices, but are not the same and should not be confused. The last four limbs are referred to as the internal limbs and are practiced sequentially.
The foundation of Raja Yoga is Patanjali’s external limbs of Yama, Niyama, Asana and Pranayama. Yama and Niyama are the principles of right conduct and lifestyle, the dos and don’ts of yoga. Yama, respect for others, includes nonviolence, truth, honesty, moderation, and noncovetousness. Niyama, positive self action, includes purity, contentment, discipline, self study, and devotion. Asana in Raja Yoga is not the same Asana that we are doing in yoga class. Patanjali simply instructs one to find a comfortable yet stable seated position. The same confusion exists with Patanjali’s instruction in Pranayama. Patanjali only instructs the Raja yogi to observe and slow the breath down to the point where one cannot distinguish between the inhalation and the exhalation. The numerous yoga postures and breathing exercises were developed much later as part of the Hatha Yoga system of mastering the body to still the mind.
Once a comfortable seated position and a slow deep breath are obtained, then one begins practicing the internal limbs: Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana, and Samadhi. Pratyhara is the drawing of the mind’s focus away from the external senses to the inner sensations of the body. When the mind draws inwards, then the next limb, Dharana, is useds to concentrate the mind on a single object, usually the breath. This is where the practice becomes challenging, keeping the mind focused and releasing attachment to thoughts. When one obtains the ability to concentrate the mind on a single object to the point of being completely absorbed in it, then one has moved into the next limb of Dhyana, meditation. When the mind is absorbed in Dhyana the thoughts cease and the mind stills. The sustained practice of Dhyana leads to the last limb, Samadhi. Enlightenment, ecstasy and bliss are all words used to describe this last limb where one sees pure awareness reflected on the still surface of the mind. Here object, subject and perceiving all melt into a feeling of oneness.
The basic premise of raja yoga is that our perception of the divine Self is obscured by the disturbances of the mind. If the mind can be made still and pure, the Self will automatically, instantaneously, shine forth. Says the Bhagavad Gita:
When, through the practice of yoga,
the mind ceases its restless movements,
and becomes still,
the aspirant realizes the Atman.
If we can imagine a lake that is whipped by waves, fouled by pollution, muddied by tourists and made turbulent by speedboats, we’ll get a fair assessment of the mind’s usual state.
Should anyone doubt this assertion, let the intrepid soul try to sit quietly for a few minutes and meditate upon the Atman. What happens? A thousand different thoughts fly at us, all leading the mind outward. The fly buzzing around suddenly becomes very important. So does the thought of dinner. We now remember where we left the keys. The argument we had yesterday becomes even more vivid and powerful; so does the perfect retort that we’ve cleverly composed during our “meditation.” The minute we stop thinking one thought, another jumps in with equal force. Were it not so dismaying, it would be funny.
Most of the time we remain unaware of the mind’s erratic movements because we are habituated to giving our minds free reign: we’ve never seriously attempted to observe, let alone train the mind. Like parents whose indiscipline has created children that everyone dreads, our lack of mental discipline has created the turbulent, ill-behaved minds that have given us endless difficulty. Without psychological discipline, the mind becomes the mental equivalent of the house ape. And all of us, sadly enough, have suffered mental agony because of it.
Mastering the Mind
While we may have grown accustomed to living with an uncontrolled mind, we should never assume that it’s an acceptable, if not inevitable, state of affairs. Vedanta says that we can master the mind and, through repeated practice, we can make the mind our servant rather than being its victim. The mind, when trained, is our truest friend; when left untrained and reckless, it’s an enemy that won’t leave the premises.
Now, instead of the polluted lake we previously envisioned, think of a beautiful, clear lake. No waves, no pollution, no tourists, no speedboats. It’s clear as glass: calm, quiet, tranquil. Looking down through the pure water, you can clearly see the bottom of the lake. The bottom of the lake, metaphorically speaking, is the Atman residing deep within our hearts. When the mind is pure and calm, the Self is no longer hidden from view. And, Vedanta says, that mind can be yours.
How? To again quote the Bhagavad Gita:
Patiently, little by little, spiritual aspirants must free themselves from all mental distractions, with the aid of the intelligent will. They must fix their minds upon the Atman, and never think of anything else. No matter where the restless and unquiet mind wanders, it must be drawn back and made to submit to the Atman alone.
The mind is cleansed and made tranquil through the repeated practice of meditation and through the practice of moral virtues.
Popular wisdom aside, there is no way to practice meditation without practicing moral virtues in tandem. To try to do otherwise is as effective as sailing the ocean with a leaky boat.
For such a Herculean task as realizing the Atman, all areas of the mind must be fully engaged. We cannot compartmentalize our life and assume that we can have both a “secular” area (in which we can live as we please) and a “spiritual” area. Just as we can’t cross the ocean in a leaky boat, so we can’t cross the ocean with two legs in two different boats. We must fully integrate all aspects of life and direct our energies towards the one great goal.
This doesn’t mean that in order to realize God a person must totally renounce the world and live in a cave, monastery or convent. What it does mean is that all aspects of our life must be spiritualized so that they can be directed towards attaining the goal of God-realization.
Because raja yoga is the path of meditation, it is—when practiced exclusively—generally followed by those who lead contemplative lives. Most of us will never fall into that category. Raja yoga is, however, an essential component of all other spiritual paths since meditation is involved in the loving recollection of God, mental discrimination, and is an essential balance to selfless action.
As for directions on how to meditate and what to meditate upon, such issues must be taken up directly with a qualified spiritual teacher. Meditation is an intensely personal matter; only a genuine spiritual teacher can accurately gauge the student’s personal tendencies and direct the student’s mind accordingly.
Further, spirituality is caught, not taught. A genuine spiritual teacher ignites the flame of spirituality in the student by the power of his or her own attainment: the student’s candle is lit by the teacher’s flame. Our candles cannot be lit by books any more than they can be lit by unqualified teachers who speak religion without living it. True spirituality is transmitted: only pure, unselfish teachers who have achieved some level of spiritual awakening can enliven our own dormant flame.
That said, some basic guidelines can be given: any concept of God—whether formless or with form—that appeals to us is helpful and good. We can think of God as being present either outside of ourselves or inside. Ramakrishna, however, recommended meditating upon God within, saying “the heart is a splendid place for meditation.” Repetition of any name of God that appeals to us is good, so is repeating the holy syllable “Om.” It’s helpful to have a regular time for meditation in order to create a habit; it’s also helpful to have a regular place for meditation that is quiet, clean, and tranquil.